• Avant Garde



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Last year, the 2023 inaugural class was put through the challenge of starting their law school journey in a worldwide pandemic. Although it came with many difficulties, confusions, and mental hardship, each one of us showed courage and resilience when making history at Lincoln Law. Many students, with the support of our faculty, put a lot of time, effort, and energy into establishing clubs, organizations, and initiatives that represent Lincoln Law’s values of Diversity, Inclusion, Innovation and Access to Justice. Through Zoom, we held Lawyer Panels, participated in legal clinical PODS, established a Mooting society, held virtual socials, and performed a law school production. Here is where Avant Garde was established, with the aim of creating a community within Lincoln Law, shedding light on legal and social issues within the legal field, and highlighting the law school’s accomplishments. We set the stage for the incoming students; and the class of 2024 is engaged and ready to further the successes of the school.

This year, with vaccines and precautions being taken on by the faculty and students, the law school was able to offer in-person classes and events allowing us to connect with our education and classmates in a more personal way. Deborah Lim, VP Social and External of Lincoln Alexander Law Students Society (LALSS), says, “I am very happy about the in-person events, such as CLSS' recent social "Margaritas and Mentors" and initiatives like "The School Bag Project" which collected donations for Afghan refugees, that have already happened this year. But I also want to encourage everyone to think about how we can continue to run events and initiatives that serve both our in-person and remote students.” The hard work and dedication Lincoln Alexander Students invested into the new law school last year has created a vibrant student culture for many years to come. Lim continues to say that, “this year, LALSS is looking at how we can build tradition and culture at Lincoln Alexander. I am looking forward to working with the Associations and Clubs to partner on some of our events, like our upcoming Spooky Fall Festival. There is also a subgroup of the Social & Finance Committee that is specifically dedicated to planning a Law Ball, so I am looking forward to supporting them and seeing what they do.”

Moreover, the seeds that we planted last year are coming into fruitionespecially with organizations like Pro Bono Students Canada (PBSC). Katrina Grogan-Kalnuk established the PBSC chapter at Lincoln Law and is now the Student Coordinator with an aim of “[bringing] what makes [Lincoln Law] students and approach to legal education different to organizations and geographic areas that have previously been underserved… while seeking out those in need of legal support outside of the immediate area surrounding the school”, as Grogan-Kalnuk states. PBSC is a mission to provide free legal support to communities facing barriers to justice, and its chapter at Lincoln Alexander has an extensive 2021-2022 project list that covers a variety of legal issues and areas of law. Grogan-Kalnuk explained that:

“PBSC at Lincoln Alexander was established in April 2021 and officially launched in September 2021. Over the summer, 11 new projects were developed and together with 25 Partner Organizations, they have placed Lincoln Alexander students on a total of 34 projects with the support of 40 Lawyer Supervisors donating their time to oversee student work. PBSC at Lincoln Alexander leads 17 projects and has placed students on 13 additional projects in collaboration with Osgoode Hall and the University of Toronto Faculty of Law PBSC Chapters, and 4 special projects led by the PBSC National Office. They received 120 applications for student volunteers and were able to place 57 Lincoln Alexander students on PBSC projects.”

More PBSC project highlights include the FMTA Tenant Rights Project and a partnership with WomenatthecentrE, focused on eradicating gender-based violence against women, gender queer, two-spirited, and trans people. Katrina’s dedication to this organization is a prime example of the heart and spirit Lincoln Alexander’s students have towards legal education and access to justice. The PBSC team can be reached at @PBSCAlexander on Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter.

So, not only is our Law School making history, but it is joining a legal world that is advancing daily in technology, diversity, and social justice. Here is where Avant Garde’s team of editors will try to shed light onto current issues within law today and examine the current state of justice in society. As our Lincoln Law family grows, our ambitions to be drivers of change and history makers become grander. As Co-Editor-In-Chief of Avant Garde, I am very excited to see the further successes and accomplishments of our students and law School within this changing legal field. The Newspaper’s editorial team cannot wait to write about them.



Last year, the pandemic introduced restrictions into our day-to-day activities. During the holidays, these constraints were heightened. While often met with complaints, the common narrative was that if we could just make it through this year, we would soon be able to return to our restriction-free, pre-pandemic gatherings. However, the idea of placing extra restrictions on holidays is not new. This year, while many of us may be celebrating on October 31st in a carefree fashion, there are many places around the world which will still face prohibitions on certain actions in relation to Halloween. In case you happen to find yourself zooming your way through law school during spooky season in any of the following locations, take a moment to brief yourself on these surprisingly stringent Halloween related laws.

Bathurst, New Brunswick, Canada

In 2017, the city of Bathurst in New Brunswick revised a by-law which resulted in the banning of youth over the age of 16 from participating in trick-or-treating. Additionally, a curfew of 8 p.m. on Halloween night was instated, prohibiting trick-or-treaters from going door-to-door past that time. This by-law was a result of a loosening of the original rules taken up in 2005 which restricted youth over the age of 14 from participating in the candy collecting tradition past 7 p.m. These measures were adopted following repeat occurrences of older children stealing candy from younger children on Halloween night. Those found violating the by-law, by being out past curfew and wearing a facial disguise in public are at risk of facing a fine of up to $200.

Hollywood, California, USA

The Los Angeles City Council passed a law banning Silly String from being possessed, sold, used, or distributed in public areas in and around the main Hollywood area between 12 a.m. on October 31st and 12 p.m. on November 1st. As Hollywood can get quite busy with the many spook-tacular festivities taking place on Halloween day, large Silly String messes were often left behind. Following complaints from city employees who were working hard to clean the streets and break up brawls provoked by Silly String incidents, the City Council finally took the step to prohibit the aerosol string in 2004. To disincentivize the public from possessing Silly String, signs are posted along Hollywood Boulevard around Halloween. These signs boldly state that anyone who is found to be in possession of aerosol string is subject to a $1000 fine or up to six-months in jail.

Swaziland, Africa

In 2013, a law was passed which proclaimed that witches flying on broomsticks 150 metres from the ground would be subjected to a colossal fine and arrest. It is unclear from the laws whether witches flying their broomsticks below 150 metres would face any penalties. This law is the result of an incident where a private investigator was caught flying a toy helicopter with a video camera attached to it while gathering surveillance information. The statute also prohibits the flying of kites and toy helicopters into the country’s airspace. Witchcraft continues to be taken seriously in Swaziland where there is widely held beliefs in the occult and black magic.

Vendargues, France

On October 28th, 2014, the mayor of Vendargues, France issued a decree which banned anyone over the age of 13 from dressing up as a clown. This ban is in effect starting on October 31st and continues for a full 30 days. The punishment for dressing as a clown includes arrest and prosecution. The decree was a result of the rising popularity of a clown prank trend on social media which saw an increase in teenagers in French towns being arrested for dressing as armed clowns.



Giving individuals the opportunity to introduce their name and their preferred pronouns is, most simply, a basic human courtesy. When considering pronoun use within the legal system, a disregard for this basic human courtesy should raise concerns on equal access to justice. For most individuals, there is a basic understanding and expectation that they will be referred to by their name and preferred gender pronoun (he/him, she/her, they/their). However, for nonbinary, gender fluid and genderqueer folk, assumptions are often made that can lead to the experience of being misgendered. Misgendering can cause confusion and embarrassment, which may be personally distracting and triggering when trying to advocate and perform to the best of one’s abilities. Given that pronouns are a fundamental element of identity, refusing to provide individuals with the opportunity to introduce their preferred pronouns can create a barrier to access in the Canadian legal system.

Last December, the British Columbia Provincial and Supreme Court took steps towards improving the legal system for gender-diverse folk by introducing the Notice to the Profession 24 and Practice Direction 59. The direction notice was issued after a conversation with judges, registry staff and the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Community (SOGIC) of the Canadian Bar Association - British Columbia Branch. The direction asks lawyers and others involved in Court proceedings to introduce themselves and provide the pronouns they would like the Court to use. Following the December 2020 announcement, the Canadian Bar Association released a “Definitions and Pronunciation FAQ” and a “Counsel Introduction Script” to clarify what is expected of Counsel and the Parties while in Court. This directive is no different from other formal routines lawyers participate in when in Court proceedings. The directions are not law; rather, they are expectations of proper conduct.

The practice directive has gained much attention in British Columbia and in the broader Canadian legal community. Despite the directive’s seemingly routine and uncontroversial nature, many lawyers are speaking out against the concept. Opponents have formally expressed and requested an open debate on the existing practices of the directive. Informally, opponents of the directive have expressed concern about a lack of discussion and randomness of the decision, invasive nature of pronoun use, concern for compelled speech, breach of privacy rights and damaging the perception of judicial impartiality. Lawyer Adrienne Smith expressed to CityNews, “what’s clear from the discussion that has unfolded is that the proponents are not concerned about the practice directive so much as they are not particularly supportive of transgender rights.” Smith explains that the individuals who are against the directive appeal to free speech and resist ‘compelled speech’ as it pertains to pronouns, however, they ignore how the directive is no different than others that request lawyers to adhere to Court formal proceedings.

On October 7th, the motion to debate the gender pronoun directive was voted down by the B.C. Law Society by a slim margin with 42.08% in favour and 57.92% against.



Ontario (Attorney General) v Clark, 2021 SCC 18 presented the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) with its first opportunity to consider prosecutorial immunity in the context of misfeasance claims by police officers against Crown prosecutors. In an 8-1 majority, the SCC decided that police officers cannot sue Crown prosecutors for the decisions they make in criminal cases. The main justification is to uphold the rights of accused persons to fair trials; but it is important to note that prosecutorial independence is a cornerstone of a fair justice system as a whole. Allowing police officers to pierce prosecutorial immunity would erode the public confidence in the justice system and pose serious risks to vulnerable accused persons involved in criminal proceedings.


In June 2009, three Toronto police officers arrested two individuals who eventually brought applications to stay the proceedings against them, claiming they were assaulted by the officers during their arrest. The Assistant Crown Attorney assigned to the case of one of the accused, Mr. Singh, did not call the officers to give evidence at the hearing. The judge described the officers’ conduct as police brutality, and reduced Mr. Singh’s sentence.

Mr. Singh’s appeal to the Ontario Court of Appeal (ONCA) was allowed and a stay of proceedings was entered. In their reasons, the ONCA were critical of the officers’ conduct and noted that the Crown did not contest the evidence of the assaults. Following this, the officers sued the Attorney General (AG) for negligence and misfeasance committed by the prosecutors involved in the trial and appeal hearings, seeking damages for the irreparable harm they claimed to have suffered as a result of the prosecutors’ decisions.

The misfeasance claim was allowed to proceed. The officers claimed that the prosecutors ignored and deliberately withheld facts that could have exculpated them. The AG moved to strike the claim arguing that it was barred by prosecutorial immunity. The motions judge found that the application of prosecutorial immunity was not obvious in the context of misfeasance claims brought by police officers. The ONCA found that prosecutors are not immune from civil liability for misfeasance in public office and the AG appealed to the SCC.

Prosecutorial Immunity

Questions of prosecutorial immunity from liability involve a balance of safeguarding the rights of accused persons with the policy considerations associated with exposing prosecutors to liability. On one hand, it is important to protect the vulnerability of accused persons that may be subject to the misuse of prosecutorial power; but this must remain balanced with the public interest duties of prosecutors to freely make independent and discretionary decisions without judicial or political influence. The cornerstone of the jurisprudence on prosecutorial immunity is supporting the prosecutor’s ability to make objective and fair decisions without exposure to civil liability.

Supreme Court Decision

In this case, the SCC concluded that prosecutorial immunity functions to protect prosecutors’ independence, which includes independence from the police. Although prosecutors and police are required to work together, they have distinct roles that must remain separate in the interest of public confidence in the justice system and the rights of accused persons. If police officers are permitted to initiate claims of misfeasance against prosecutors, the important intermediary function of the prosecutor between the police and citizens will be eroded. The SCC found that prosecutorial immunity against misfeasance is an important way to uphold the prosecution’s ability to act independently and administer their duties to the public.

In an 8-1 majority ruling, the SCC granted the AG’s motion to strike the officers’ claim, stating that a misfeasance claim would not succeed. In summary, the majority decided that Crown prosecutors have immunity from claims made by police officers regarding prosecutorial decisions made in the course of criminal proceedings. Crown prosecutors do not owe any specific duties to police officers, and misfeasance in public office cannot be used to get around this.



As September begins, our now-2Ls return to face a new challenge: On-Campus Interviews. In this article we explore the thought processes of students who chose to participate, and those who chose to sit out.

Why did you choose to forego the OCIs this year?

Student 1:

There were very few firms with a practice in the area of law that I am interested in. Even if they had one, it was not a practice area that summer students would really get to explore. I'm more interested in finding a boutique or an in-house summer job that would really give me the experience I'm seeking.

Student 2:

I chose to focus on my studies, extracurriculars, and the things that were in front of me with certainty and urgency. I did not want to gamble my time and energy for a chance at a job (or interview) that I might not get. I feel confident enough in the school's system and my own networking connections to find work without OCIs.

Be assured, the OCIs are not the only option out there! For those who are interested, read on to hear from our OCI whizzes.

How did you navigate the interviews you were offered?

Student A:

I rejected 3 OCIs because I didn’t think I could manage doing all 14. This was a good call because I was exhausted by the end of the day! I ended up declining interviews from firms that had a structured/rotational summer program. I felt that I would benefit more from participating in a summer program that allowed me to work in as many practice areas as possible to see where my interests lie.

Student B:

Realistically, I have no clue what to expect out of the OCI process. If I had rejected any of the interviews I was extended, it would have felt like I was narrowing the possibilities without confidence that I would receive a job. I would have rather been tired at the end of the day from all the interviews, than worried I didn’t have enough avenues to choose from.

How was the overall experience, and how did it compare to your expectations coming in?


The experience was very positive – a lot better than I had imagined! I expected my interviews to be conversational; however, the majority were structured, which was my preference. I was asked to tell the interviewers about myself, behavioural questions, why I chose to attend LASL, and questions about EDI.


Honestly, I overprepared, at least for the first round. It turns out they just want to gauge you. It took a lot to remember that I have accomplished what I have accomplished, and my resume speaks for itself. The interviewers just want to get to know you and see if you are a good fit for the company and their work culture.

Do you have any tips for other students who will undergo the process in the future?


Make sure to write a compelling cover letter and have decent grades – emphasis on decent, you don’t have to fall in the top 10% to get OCIs! These two things will get your foot into the door. As for interviews, know your resume inside out and prepare anecdotes so that you can easily tackle the questions you’re asked. I had stories to back up my strengths, weaknesses, and how I’ve contributed to EDI.


Honestly, just be yourself. I am not the most polished person ever, but I can be professional and a great person to work with and that was a vital aspect of the interview. Ensure that you know your resume well: what it stands for and how every aspect of it reflects you as a person and a worker beyond a piece of paper. What are you most proud of, what represents you the best, what did you not include that reflects you?

Good luck to all our students in whichever path they take, and a warm thank you to those who shared their thoughts!



Before I begin to advocate for mooting, I would like to note that I am not a confrontational person, and I tend to avoid any kind of dispute as much as I can. However, I did not allow that to stop me from competitively mooting. The word ‘adversarial’, when describing our justice system, is almost, in a sense, misleading. Litigation, arbitration and any similar system is not meant to be (completely) confrontational. It is meant to uncover the truth and understand the root of a legal dispute. This is why I began to moot.

I started mooting in my fourth year of my undergraduate degree. I thought that having a few mooting experiences under my leg would give me an advantage in a law school moot, but I was massively mistaken. A fundamental understanding of case law, and understanding how the facts of a particular case can apply to the case law, while challenging your position on a topic is a different beast altogether. This is not to scare anyone who has not participated in a moot yet. Rather, my intention is the opposite: to highlight the fact that you do not need prior experience to succeed in a law school moot. Most people who come into law school never had the opportunity to moot competitively. It is not a prerequisite to be a good mooter. Although presentations can be beneficial to help promote public speaking skills, there is so much more to litigation than just projection, a clear voice, and confidence.

I decided to participate in the 2nd McCarthy Tétrault to continue to cultivate the skills involved in mooting. I felt a lot of pressure to succeed in this moot considering my partner, Katrina Grogan-Kalnuk, and I were runners up the previous year at Lincoln Law. The McCarthy Tétrault Moot was challenging, as contract law is outside my comfort zone. It also forced me to be on my toes about what to expect from my opponents. While the timing of the moot was challenging, since it was around the same time as OCIs and during the busy period of the semester, it was the best way to anticipate the challenges and pacing of working in a firm. We ended up advancing to the final and Katrina was one of the top oralists (of course I have to give her this shout out because she won’t herself). The reason we were able to get to the final is because we built upon the skills we learned at our first McCarthy Tétrault Moot.

As someone who has mooted before law school and throughout it, I gained a better understanding of the work that needs to go into a moot in terms of preparation. One of the biggest changes in my mooting has to be my understanding of the facts and how to apply the facts to the law. Participating in a moot in law school is an invaluable experience. Not only does it challenge your perspective on cases that you once thought you had no opinion on, it forces you to really understand, and appreciate, the facts and the nuances of each case. Preparing for a moot with your partner can change your perspective on the case and yourself. I could not recommend a moot experience enough. If you want a career in criminal law, labour law, or personal injury, you spend a lot of time in an adversarial-type system. The experience and confidence in yourself that you gain from this experience can form the foundation of your future litigation career. I look forward to future moots, and look forward to helping the future litigators of Lincoln Alexander.



The day before my first day of law school, I almost died. I was playing a game of soccer with a few friends as a way to unwind and enjoy my last days of freedom before beginning my long and challenging journey as an incoming 1L student at Lincoln Alexander School of Law. The soccer game was intense. We played inside a hot, enclosed dome with no air conditioning, no windows, and no circulation. Just sitting on the sidelines I almost died of heat exhaustion! The temperature was almost unbearable. It must have been at least 40 degrees in the dome that day. I almost didn’t make it to my first day of school because of that game. However, little did I know, I was about to experience very similar feelings entering law school. This is a short account describing my experience as a 1L student at Canada’s newest law school, Lincoln Alexander School of Law.

The law school experience is unlike any other life experience. Training for a job, completing graduate studies, or even performing on stage in front of a sold-out crowd do not compare to the level of preparedness and intensity required by law school. I am only six weeks in but the exhaustion is unreal. There were many times these past few weeks when I thought I might not make it. In fact, this underlying feeling sticks with me most days. Classes just resumed from our first reading week, and I am already asking myself “How will I survive?”. With three assignments due, a tutorial presentation, and a ton of cases to read and brief, I already feel behind. I can’t help but wonder how anyone could successfully survive law school. I am literally dying to know. For now, my survival depends on several cups of coffee and high sugary snacks. This is my game plan to get me to exams.

So far, I am still convinced there is nothing that could prepare one for law school. Nothing. If anyone tells you differently, they are just trying to be nice without discouraging you from your dream of becoming a powerful lawyer. Trust me–I know– I did my research. I asked several experienced people what to expect and how to best prepare before Day 1. I met with experienced lawyers, new lawyers, current law students, and students who had just recently written the bar. They all said a variation of the same things. In no particular order, here are some of their words of wisdom: prepare for a TON of work ahead, quit your day job, say bye-bye to free time, invest in a good book stand, a fluffy pillow, and a really, really good coffee machine. And now that I am approximately six weeks into my law school experience, I can attest to the importance of this advice.

As I begin the second quarter of my 1L experience, there are a few other tips and tricks I picked up along the way that have also kept me going (just barely) up until now. Here are a few of my own suggestions that I would add to that list. First, buy your books early and get comfortable with the tiny-sized font. In fact, you may want to invest in a pair of reading glasses early on. Do not try to multitask during lectures. Everything your professors say in class is important and will probably show up on an assignment or an exam. Find a good group of friends or study partners on whom you can rely and ask questions when you absolutely have no idea what’s going on in class. (You will also want to have these friends close by to share a slice of cheesecake with while sobbing uncontrollably together about the amount of work there is and the B curve). Lastly, do not underestimate the power of sleep, hydration, and food. During the intensive course, there were a few times I went without life’s essentials, but I have quickly learned that one cannot be successful in law school without water, good snacks, and some decent shut-eye.

All this to say, take care of yourself first during your law school experience and everything else will work itself out (or so I hope). And although I would much rather have more downtime to play a good game of soccer I am enjoying many aspects of my legal education thus far.

Your fellow 1L colleague,




For as long as I can remember, I have always had an interest in law. I have been exposed to the law and various proceedings from a young age. Specifically, I remember being in courtrooms or law offices during my parent’s divorce. At the age of 13, I acquired an interest in true crime which led me to become interested in criminal law. By the end of high school, I knew I wanted to go to law school to pursue a career in criminal law. Before I began university, I knew that going to law school was my overall goal. However, I had multiple obstacles that I had throughout my journey to law school.

When I was 17 years old, I received an MRI which revealed that I had lesions within my brain and my spine. I was told I was likely going to develop Multiple Sclerosis (MS), which is an autoimmune disorder that impacts the central nervous system. Once I started university, I began being judged for having a disability. I was told not to pursue a university degree despite doing well academically throughout high school. I was pressured into going part-time, which I ultimately did throughout most of my degree. I still managed to do well academically throughout my undergraduate degree and became involved with several extracurricular activities. However, by the time I was in my fourth year, I ended up experiencing my first major relapse. This relapse led me to experiencing chronic pain and mobility issues. It has also led me to receiving my formal MS diagnosis. At this time, I was told to drop out and that I could never go to law school.

Shortly after receiving my diagnosis, I began Disease Modifying Therapy (DMT). Eventually, my health stabilized. During this period, I was more determined than ever to complete my degree and apply to law school. One of my main motivations for applying to law school was because I one day wanted to pursue a career related to criminal law, human rights law, or both. My experiences with ableism led me to becoming passionate about advocating for disability rights and accessibility. While completing my undergraduate degree, I began becoming involved in advocating for accessibility on my university campus and in my community. I also became more aware of the barriers that individuals with disabilities face every day, especially in the legal system. Specifically, I hope to use my legal education to address the issue of accessibility in criminal justice systems.

The application process was complex. Studying the LSAT is difficult for anyone but it’s even more difficult when you have cognitive issues associated with MS. I ended up writing the LSAT twice and completed my applications. Shortly after I received several offers, I decided to attend the Lincoln Alexander School of Law. Last spring, I also completed my undergraduate degree despite being told throughout my degree that I shouldn’t be pursuing a university degree.

At the moment, I am currently a 1L student. Law school is difficult for anyone, but it’s a completely different experience when you are disabled. I am aware that there is a dearth of individuals with disabilities within the legal profession and law school itself. I am also aware I may face judgment in my ability to be a successful legal professional because of my disability. I have experienced imposter syndrome several times. It has been almost two months since I began law school and it has been a stressful experience. Nonetheless, no matter how difficult it becomes, I have to remind myself why I want to be in law school and what I hope to accomplish throughout my degree. I have to remember how hard I worked to get here. I know the next three years will not be easy, but I know I can get through any challenge ahead of me.



I recently discovered a new trend – digital clothing. The way it works is you take a full-length photo of yourself with form fitting clothes under good lighting. Then, you send the image to one of the companies who sell digital clothing along with your purchased choice of digital attire. The company markets along with different brands to sell you anything from a $35 crop top to a $4000 pair of couture shoes. Once purchased, they photoshop the clothing onto you in the image you sent and then they send it back. A certain level of skill is required to ensure that these edits are believable.

My first reaction was: ‘why is this a thing’? Who cares about spending money on clothing which you cannot actually wear? After researching this new trend, I indeed started to see the merit of digital fashion. Digital clothing prevents textile waste, thereby limiting fast fashion, and works for all body types. It is literally a one-size fits all! It can also be a great tool for influencers who market fashion designs.

You are probably still thinking: ‘how is this relevant to me’? Sure, I am not an influencer. I also do not shop a lot, so I am not worried about my mark on sustainability too much; and we all do find clothes on our own that fit our body best. However, just imagine a world where you work from home, attend school online, rarely turn on your zoom camera, wear only PJs (if at all), and are only distinguished by your voice or face at most. Sound familiar? Faces and voices are distinguishable features, but we have, for a while now, also distinguished ourselves by the way we dress. We express who we are in the colour scheme, pattern, and design of the clothes that we wear. The digital revolution we experienced in the past year requires us to think of new ways to express ourselves virtually. In my opinion, this is where digital clothing will make its mark.

In fact, you probably already wear digital clothing when you take a photo on Snapchat. While you might not think that dog ears and cherries are clothing, it accomplishes primarily the same thing. Everyone knows those cherries are not real and simply were positioned on your face, but they still look cute and have a way of showing the kind of character or personality you have. Digital clothing attempts to create the same effect.

Go and Google “digital fashion”, and take a look at one of the many sites. You will find a lot of futuristic designs. I found that the more I looked at these sites, the more I started to like the fashion taste - like a cheesy pop song on replay. If you are still not convinced, then think back to your years of gaming, or maybe think back to yesterday. I think half of my 12th year was spent playing SIMS3 and immersed in a virtual world where each purchased edition came with a new set of clothing. Most games also have in-game purchases for new character attire. How cool would it be to also see it on oneself?

However, the bigger question now is: who can afford this? Personally, I would not spend $4000 on a pair of digital shoes. Maybe, in the future, each person will spend at least some money to create one reasonably priced digital outfit. Maybe, we will all photoshop digital clothing on ourselves.

I think this is a new industry with lots of potential to bloom. My recommendation is to track the pace at which it moves through the world of intellectual property with regards to design and production. Who knows how the future will look?



It is no surprise that the rate of technological advancements we’ve seen permeate our lives are growing by the numbers. Automation is a particular area where machines have complemented and streamlined our responsibilities, from daily tasks in the workplace to transportation. Autonomous vehicles are an expanding innovation in the automotive industry that has seen early adoption around the world. In 2017, the Government of Ontario approved the University of Waterloo, the Erwin Hymer Group, and Blackberry QNX to begin testing self-driving vehicles on public roads across the province. Although Ontario’s regulations allowing manufacturers the ability to test this technology are forgiving, the regulatory framework still has some adapting to do. Much of this regulation boils down to the same questions the legal community has been asking themselves in light of increased automation – is it safe, and if so, who does fault lie with if something goes